Refinement of a protocol for the induction of lactation in nonpregnant nonhuman primates by using exogenous hormone treatment.

Journal Article (Journal Article)

Obtaining sufficient quantities of milk from NHP is necessary for pharmacologic and immunologic studies required for the development and safety assessment of drugs and vaccines to be used in the maternal-infant setting. We previously induced lactation in nonpregnant female rhesus macaques (RM, Macaca mulatta) and African green monkeys (AGM, Chlorocebus sabaeus) for studies of immune responses in milk, but the volume collected was variable. To improve lactation induction protocols for nonbreeding nonhuman primates, we investigated serum hormone levels and collection protocols in AGM and RM. Here, we correlated milk volume with serum levels of endogenous and administered hormones: estradiol, prolactin, progesterone, and medroxyprogesterone in RM and AGM. We also investigated whether age, parity or the timing of milk collections were associated with the volume of milk collected from the AGM and RM in which lactation was induced by using exogenous hormones. We found an inverse correlation with serum estradiol and milk volume in the RM but no significant correlation between milk volumes and the remaining serum hormone levels in the induced RM or AGM. In addition, HIL AGM had higher peak estradiol levels than did naturally lactating AGM. A revised estradiol-sparing protocol increased milk volumes in the AGM. In addition, milk volume in RM was greater in the morning than the afternoon. In conclusion, we have refined a lactation induction protocol in nonpregnant primates, which is a needed alternative to using nursing primates for the assessment of drug levels and immune responses in milk.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Smith, SD; Amos, JD; Beck, KN; Colvin, LM; Franke, KS; Liebl, BE; Permar, SR

Published Date

  • November 2014

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 53 / 6

Start / End Page

  • 700 - 707

PubMed ID

  • 25650978

Pubmed Central ID

  • PMC4253585

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 1559-6109


  • eng

Conference Location

  • United States