Rapid changes in the gut microbiome during human evolution.

Journal Article (Journal Article)

Humans are ecosystems containing trillions of microorganisms, but the evolutionary history of this microbiome is obscured by a lack of knowledge about microbiomes of African apes. We sequenced the gut communities of hundreds of chimpanzees, bonobos, and gorillas and developed a phylogenetic approach to reconstruct how present-day human microbiomes have diverged from those of ancestral populations. Compositional change in the microbiome was slow and clock-like during African ape diversification, but human microbiomes have deviated from the ancestral state at an accelerated rate. Relative to the microbiomes of wild apes, human microbiomes have lost ancestral microbial diversity while becoming specialized for animal-based diets. Individual wild apes cultivate more phyla, classes, orders, families, genera, and species of bacteria than do individual humans across a range of societies. These results indicate that humanity has experienced a depletion of the gut flora since diverging from Pan.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Moeller, AH; Li, Y; Mpoudi Ngole, E; Ahuka-Mundeke, S; Lonsdorf, EV; Pusey, AE; Peeters, M; Hahn, BH; Ochman, H

Published Date

  • November 2014

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 111 / 46

Start / End Page

  • 16431 - 16435

PubMed ID

  • 25368157

Pubmed Central ID

  • PMC4246287

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1091-6490

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 0027-8424

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1073/pnas.1419136111


  • eng