Renal epithelial cell-derived monocyte colony stimulating factor as a local informant of renal injury and means of monocyte activation.
Monocyte accumulation in renal allografts is associated with allograft dysfunction. As monocyte influx occurs acutely following reperfusion, we investigated the effect of ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) on monocyte colony stimulating factor (m-CSF), a key cytokine in monocyte recruitment. We hypothesized that renal tubule epithelial cells (RTECs) could produce m-CSF in response to IRI, which could in turn promote monocyte activation. Real time PCR was used to measure levels of intragraft m-CSF transcripts in patients during IRI and clinical rejection. Also, m-CSF production by RTECs following IRI simulation in vitro was measured using ELISA. Monocyte expression of CD40 and CD80 was then analyzed using flow cytometry following co-culture with supernatants of RTECs after IRI. Monocyte expression of CD40, CD80 and HLA-DR was then examined following treatment with rh-m-CSF (10, 36, and 100 ng/ml), as was monocyte size and granularity. We found that intragraft m-CSF transcription was significantly increased postreperfusion (P = 0.002) and during clinical rejection (P = 0.002). We also found that RTECs produced m-CSF in response to IRI in vitro (P = 0.036). Monocytes co-cultured with the supernatants of postischemic RTECs became activated as evidenced by increased expression of CD40 and CD80. Also, monocytes treated with recombinant m-CSF assumed an activated phenotype exhibiting increased size, granularity and expression of CD40, CD80, CD86, and HLA-DR, and demonstrating enhanced phagocytic activity. Taken together, we suggest that renal tubular cell derived m-CSF is a stimulus for monocyte activation and may be an important target for control of IRI-associated immune activation.
Singh, KA; Kampen, RL; Hoffmann, SC; Eldaif, SM; Kirk, AD
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