The future of organ and tissue transplantation: can T-cell costimulatory pathway modifiers revolutionize the prevention of graft rejection?
Transplantation therapies have revolutionized care for patients with endstage organ (kidney, liver, heart, lung, and pancreatic beta-cell) failure, yet significant problems persist with treatments designed to prevent graft rejection. Antirejection therapies are not always effective, must be taken daily, and are both expensive and associated with well-known toxic effects. Recent advances have suggested that the immune system has more self-regulatory capability than previously appreciated. In this review, we discuss immune system function and new therapeutic agents that modify so-called costimulatory receptor signaling to support transplant function without generally suppressing the immune system.
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