Predictors of Multigland Disease in Primary Hyperparathyroidism: A Scoring System with 4D-CT Imaging and Biochemical Markers.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Multigland disease represents a challenging group of patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. Additional lesions may be missed on imaging because they are not considered or are too small to be seen. The aim of this is study was to identify 4D-CT imaging and biochemical predictors of multigland disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective study of 155 patients who underwent 4D-CT and successful surgery with a biochemical cure that compared patients with multigland and single-gland disease. Variables studied included the size of the largest lesion on 4D-CT, the number of lesions prospectively identified on 4D-CT, serum calcium levels, serum parathyroid hormone levels, and the Wisconsin Index (the product of serum calcium and parathyroid hormone levels). Imaging findings and the Wisconsin Index were used to calculate a composite multigland disease scoring system. We evaluated the predictive value of individual variables and the scoring system for multigland disease. RESULTS: Thirty-six patients with multigland disease were compared with 119 patients with single-gland disease. Patients with multigland disease had significantly lower Wisconsin Index scores, smaller lesion size, and a higher likelihood of having either multiple or zero lesions identified on 4D-CT (P ≤ .01). Size cutoff of <7 mm had 85% specificity for multigland disease, but including other variables in the composite multigland disease score improved the specificity. Scores of ≥4, ≥5, and 6 had specificities of 81%, 93%, and 98%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The composite multigland disease scoring system based on 4D-CT imaging findings and biochemical data can identify patients with a high likelihood of multigland disease. Communicating the suspicion for multigland disease in the radiology report could influence surgical decision-making, particularly when considering re-exploration in a previously operated neck or initial limited neck exploration.
Sepahdari, AR; Bahl, M; Harari, A; Kim, HJ; Yeh, MW; Hoang, JK
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