Tolerogenic therapies in transplantation.
Since the concept of immunologic tolerance was discovered in the 1940s, the pursuit of tolerance induction in human transplantation has led to a rapid development of pharmacologic and biologic agents. Short-term graft survival remains an all-time high, but successful withdrawal of immunosuppression to achieve operational tolerance rarely occurs outside of liver transplantation. Collaborative efforts through the NIH sponsored Immune Tolerance Network and the European Commission sponsored Reprogramming the Immune System for Establishment of Tolerance consortia have afforded researchers opportunity to evaluate the safety and efficacy of tolerogenic strategies, investigate mechanisms of tolerance, and identify molecular and genetic markers that distinguish the tolerance phenotype. In this article, we review traditional and novel approaches to inducing tolerance for organ transplantation, with an emphasis on their translation into clinical trials.
Page, EK; Dar, WA; Knechtle, SJ
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