Posttransplant infection in enteric versus bladder-drained simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplant recipients.
BACKGROUND: Although bladder drainage of the pancreas remains the most common site for drainage of exocrine secretions, enteric drainage is becoming more common in the United States. The most common cause of morbidity after pancreas transplantation is infection, particularly recurrent urinary tract infection. METHODS: We examined the incidence of infectious complications for enteric-drained (ED) versus bladder-drained (BD) simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplants (PTx) to determine the incidence of post-transplant infection. The patient cohort included simultaneous pancreas-kidney PTx recipients from June 1995 through August 1997 using a similar induction protocol with antithymocyte globulin, mycophenolate mofetil, prednisone, and Neoral. During this time period, 48 BD PTx and 78 ED PTx were performed. Demographic data including age of transplant, gender, race, and duration of initial hospital stay were similar. However, mean follow-up for the BD PTx was 1.9 years vs. 0.9 years for ED PTx. Rejection, infection, and graft and patient survival rates were estimated by the method of Kaplan and Meier. RESULTS: For the entire cohort, 1-year patient survival was 98%, kidney survival 94%, and pancreas survival 93%. There was no difference in survival between ED or BD PTx. At 6 months, kidney transplant rejection had occurred in 38% of BD PTx vs. 30% of ED PTx. Steroid resistant rejection was similar (BD 19%, ED 17%). Postoperative pancreatic leak occurred in 12% BD PTx and 5% ED PTx (P=0.06). There was no significant difference in time to first infection or first abdominal infection between groups. Opportunistic infections were much less likely to occur in ED recipients by 1 year (12% vs. 31%, P=0.002). Both cytomegalovirus infection rates (BD 21% vs. ED 8%, P=0.04) and fungal infection rates (BD 17% vs. ED 4%, P=0.04) were lower in ED PTx. The rate of first urinary tract infection was dramatically decreased with ED. At 1 year, only 20% of ED PTx developed a urinary tract infection vs. 63% of BD PTx (P=0.0001). CONCLUSION: Enteric drainage of the pancreas is more physiologic, has similar results to bladder drainage, but has less infectious complications, particularly urinary tract infections.
Pirsch, JD; Odorico, JS; D'Alessandro, AM; Knechtle, SJ; Becker, BN; Sollinger, HW
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