Effect of aerobic training on the host systemic milieu in patients with solid tumours: an exploratory correlative study.
BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated the effects of exercise on modulation of host factors in cancer patients. We investigated the efficacy of chronic aerobic training on multiple host-related effector pathways in patients with solid tumours. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Paired peripheral blood samples were obtained from 44 patients with solid tumours receiving cytotoxic therapy and synthetic erythropoietin (usual care; n=21) or usual care plus supervised aerobic training (n=23) for 12 weeks. Samples were characterised for changes in immune, cytokine and angiogenic factors, and metabolic intermediates. Aerobic training consisted of three supervised cycle ergometry sessions per week at 60% to 100% of peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak), 30-45 min per session, for 12 weeks following a nonlinear prescription. RESULTS: The between-group delta change in cardiopulmonary function was +4.1 ml kg (-1) min(-1), favouring aerobic training (P<0.05). Significant pre-post between-group differences for five cytokine and angiogenic factors (HGF, IL-4, macrophage inflammatory protein-1β (MIP-1β), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and TNF-α) also favour the aerobic training group (P's<0.05). These reductions occurred in conjunction with nonsignificant group differences for T lymphocytes CD4(+), CD8(+), and CD8(+)/CD45RA (P<0.10). For these factors, circulating concentrations generally increased from baseline to week 12 in the aerobic training group compared with decreases or no change in the usual care group. No significant changes in any metabolic intermediates were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Aerobic training alters host availability of select immune-inflammatory effectors in patients with solid tumours; larger confirmatory studies in more homogenous samples are warranted.
Glass, OK; Inman, BA; Broadwater, G; Courneya, KS; Mackey, JR; Goruk, S; Nelson, ER; Jasper, J; Field, CJ; Bain, JR; Muehlbauer, M; Stevens, RD; Hirschey, MD; Jones, LW
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