Perinatal, neonatal, and family social factors predicting poor school outcome of low-birth-weight survivors: an integrative review.
To examine the relationship of perinatal factors, neonatal factors, and family characteristics with school outcomes of low-birth-weight (LBW) children.An integrative review of the literature was performed using electronic databases focusing on key words, including school outcome, school performance, educational outcome, academic outcome/academic achievement, and LBW.The in utero or neonatal risk factors for poor school outcome included in this review were perinatal brain injury, brain structural abnormality, motor deficits, and neonatal conditions. Social risk factors found to contribute to poorer school outcomes were family structure, family stability, parental education, poverty, male sex, nonwhite race, and acculturation level.Long-term school outcomes of LBW children are influenced by a number of factors related to the characteristics of both children and their families. These factors need to be considered when designing preventive interventions.
Zhang, J; Holditch-Davis, DL; Darcy-Mahoney, A
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