Hospital Surgical Volume and Associated Postoperative Complications of Pediatric Urological Surgery in the United States.
PURPOSE: Hospital and provider surgical volume have been increasingly linked to surgical outcomes. However, this topic has rarely been addressed in children. We investigated whether hospital surgical volume impacts complication rates in pediatric urology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (1998 to 2011) for pediatric (18 years or younger) hospitalizations for urological procedures. We used ICD-9-CM codes to identify elective urological interventions and NSQIP® postoperative in hospital complications. Annual hospital surgical volume was calculated and dichotomized as high volume (90th percentile or above) or non-high volume (below 90th percentile). RESULTS: We identified 158,805 urological admissions (114,634 high volume and 44,171 non-high volume hospitals). Of the hospitals 75% recorded fewer than 5 major pediatric urology cases performed yearly. High volume hospitals showed treatment of significantly younger patients (mean 5.4 vs 9.6 years, p < 0.001) and were more likely to be teaching hospitals (93% vs 71%, p < 0.001). The overall rate of NSQIP identified postoperative complications was higher at non-high volume vs high volume hospitals (11.6% vs 9.3%, p = 0.003). After adjusting for confounding effects patients treated at non-high volume hospitals remained more likely to suffer multiple NSQIP tracked postoperative complications, including acute renal failure (OR 1.4, p = 0.04), urinary tract infection (OR 1.3, p = 0.01), postoperative respiratory complications (OR 1.5, p = 0.01), systemic sepsis (OR 2.0, p ≤ 0.001), postoperative bleeding (OR 2.5, p < 0.001) and in hospital death (OR 2.2, p = 0.007). CONCLUSIONS: Urological procedures performed in children at non-high volume hospitals were associated with an increased risk of in hospital, NSQIP identified postoperative complications, including a small but significant increase in postoperative mortality, mostly following nephrectomy and percutaneous nephrolithotomy.
Wang, H-HS; Tejwani, R; Zhang, H; Wiener, JS; Routh, JC
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