Non-invasive, simultaneous quantification of vascular oxygenation and glucose uptake in tissue.
We report the development of non-invasive, fiber-based diffuse optical spectroscopy for simultaneously quantifying vascular oxygenation (SO2) and glucose uptake in solid tumors in vivo. Glucose uptake was measured using a fluorescent glucose analog, 2-[N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diaxol-4-yl)amino]-2-deoxyglucose (2-NBDG). Quantification of label-free SO2 and 2-NBDG-fluorescence-based glucose uptake 60 minutes after administration of the tracer (2-NBDG60) was performed using computational models of light-tissue interaction. This study was carried out on normal tissue and 4T1 and 4T07 murine mammary tumor xenografts in vivo. Injection of 2-NBDG did not cause a significant change in optical measurements of SO2, demonstrating its suitability as a functional reporter of tumor glucose uptake. Correction of measured 2-NBDG-fluorescence for the effects of absorption and scattering significantly improved contrast between tumor and normal tissue. The 4T1 and 4T07 tumors showed significantly decreased SO2, and 4T1 tumors demonstrated increased 2-NBDG60 compared with normal tissue (60 minutes after the administration of 2-NBDG when perfusion-mediated effects have cleared). 2-NBDG-fluorescence was found to be highly sensitive to food deprivation-induced reduction in blood glucose levels, demonstrating that this endpoint is indeed sensitive to glycolytic demand. 2-NBDG60 was also found to be linearly related to dose, underscoring the importance of calibrating for dose when comparing across animals or experiments. 4T1 tumors demonstrated an inverse relationship between 2-NBDG60 and SO2 that was consistent with the Pasteur effect, particularly when exposed to hypoxic gas breathing. Our results illustrate the potential of optical spectroscopy to provide valuable information about the metabolic status of tumors, with important implications for cancer prognosis.
Rajaram, N; Reesor, AF; Mulvey, CS; Frees, AE; Ramanujam, N
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