Rindopepimut: anti-EGFRvIII peptide vaccine, oncolytic.
Glioblastoma, the most common primary malignant brain tumor, is among the most difficult cancers to treat. Despite the aggressive standard of care, including surgical removal followed by radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant chemotherapy, the often sudden onset, diffuse infiltrating nature and highly malignant features of the lesion result in a median overall survival of < 15 months. Currently employed standard- of-care therapy for glioblastoma is nonspecific, leading to premature withdrawal of treatment due to off-target toxicity. Rindopepimut is a peptide-based vaccine that elicits a potent humoral and cellular immune response specifically against cells expressing EGFRvIII, a rearranged, cell-surface tyrosine kinase receptor present exclusively in glioblastoma and other common neoplasms. Several phase I and phase II clinical trials have demonstrated that vaccination with rindopepimut is safe, well tolerated and produces a highly potent immune response that effectively eradicates EGFRvIII-expressing tumor cells, leading to a 73% increase in survival among patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma. Furthermore, temozolomide-induced lymphopenia enhances the rindopepimut-induced immune response against EGFRvIII, allowing for enhanced vaccination responses in the context of standard-of-care chemotherapy. Rindopepimut is currently undergoing evaluation in a phase III international trial for newly diagnosed glioblastoma and is under clinical investigation for recurrent glioblastoma and pediatric brain stem gliomas.
Gedeon, PC; Choi, BD; Sampson, JH; Bigner, DD
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