Interventional strategies associated with improvements in survival for out-of-hospital cardiac arrests in Singapore over 10 years.
We aim to study if there has been an improvement in survival for Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest (OHCA) in Singapore, the effects of various interventional strategies over the past 10 years, and identify strategies that contributed to improved survival.Rates of OHCA survival were compared between 2001-2004 and 2010-2012, using nationwide data for all OHCA presenting to EMS and public hospitals. A multivariate logistic regression model for survival to discharge was constructed to identify strategies with significant impact.A total of 5453 cases were included, 2428 cases from 2001 to 2004 and 3025 cases from 2010 to 2012. There was significant improvement in Utstein (witnessed, shockable) survival to discharge from 2001-2004 (2.5%) to 2010-2012 (11.0%), adjusted odds ratio (OR) 9.6 [95% CI: 2.2-41.9]). Overall survival to discharge increased from 1.6% to 3.2% (adjusted OR 2.2 [1.5-3.3]). Bystander CPR rates increased from 19.7% to 22.4% (p=0.02). The multivariate regression model (adjusted for important non-modifiable risk factors) showed that response time <8min (OR 1.5 [1.0-2.3]), bystander AED (OR 5.8 [2.0-16.2]), and post-resuscitation hypothermia (OR 30.0 [11.5-78.0]) were significantly associated with survival to hospital discharge. Conversely, pre-hospital epinephrine (OR 0.6 [0.4-0.9]) was associated negatively with survival.OHCA survival has improved in Singapore over the past 10 years. Improvement in response time, public AEDs and post-resuscitation hypothermia appear to have contributed to the increase in survival. Singapore's experience might suggest that developing EMS systems should focus on reducing times to basic life support, including bystander defibrillation and post-resuscitation care.
Lai, H; Choong, CV; Fook-Chong, S; Ng, YY; Finkelstein, EA; Haaland, B; Goh, ES; Leong, BS-H; Gan, HN; Foo, D; Tham, LP; Charles, R; Ong, MEH; PAROS study group,
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