Blood transfusion after percutaneous coronary intervention and risk of subsequent adverse outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to define the prevalence and prognostic impact of blood transfusions in contemporary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) practice. BACKGROUND: Although the presence of anemia is associated with adverse outcomes in patients undergoing PCI, the optimal use of blood products in patients undergoing PCI remains controversial. METHODS: A search of EMBASE and MEDLINE was conducted to identify PCI studies that evaluated blood transfusions and their association with major adverse cardiac events (MACE) and mortality. Two independent reviewers screened the studies for inclusion, and data were extracted from relevant studies. Random effects meta-analysis was used to estimate the risk of adverse outcomes with blood transfusions. Statistical heterogeneity was assessed by considering the I(2) statistic. RESULTS: Nineteen studies that included 2,258,711 patients with more than 54,000 transfusion events were identified (prevalence of blood transfusion 2.3%). Crude mortality rate was 6,435 of 50,979 (12.6%, 8 studies) in patients who received a blood transfusion and 27,061 of 2,266,111 (1.2%, 8 studies) in the remaining patients. Crude MACE rates were 17.4% (8,439 of 48,518) in patients who had a blood transfusion and 3.1% (68,062 of 2,212,730) in the remaining cohort. Meta-analysis demonstrated that blood transfusion was independently associated with an increase in mortality (odds ratio: 3.02, 95% confidence interval: 2.16 to 4.21, I(2) = 91%) and MACE (odds ratio: 3.15, 95% confidence interval: 2.59 to 3.82, I(2) = 81%). Similar observations were recorded in studies that adjusted for baseline hematocrit, anemia, and bleeding. CONCLUSIONS: Blood transfusion is independently associated with increased risk of mortality and MACE events. Clinicians should minimize the risk for periprocedural transfusion by using available bleeding-avoidance strategies and avoiding liberal transfusion practices.
Kwok, CS; Sherwood, MW; Watson, SM; Nasir, SB; Sperrin, M; Nolan, J; Kinnaird, T; Kiatchoosakun, S; Ludman, PF; de Belder, MA; Rao, SV; Mamas, MA
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