B10 cells: a functionally defined regulatory B cell subset.
B cells are commonly thought to enhance inflammatory immune responses. However, specific regulatory B cell subsets recently were identified that downregulate adaptive and innate immunity, inflammation, and autoimmunity through diverse molecular mechanisms. In both mice and humans, a rare, but specific, subset of regulatory B cells is functionally characterized by its capacity to produce IL-10, a potent inhibitory cytokine. For clarity, this regulatory B cell subset has been labeled as B10 cells, because their ability to downregulate immune responses and inflammatory disease is fully attributable to IL-10, and their absence or loss exacerbates disease symptoms in mouse models. This review preferentially focuses on what is known about mouse B10 cell development, phenotype, and effector function, as well as on mechanistic studies that demonstrated their functional importance during inflammation, autoimmune disease, and immune responses.
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