Personalized antiplatelet and anticoagulation therapy: applications and significance of pharmacogenomics.
In recent years, substantial effort has been made to better understand the influence of genetic factors on the efficacy and safety of numerous medications. These investigations suggest that the use of pharmacogenetic data to inform physician decision-making has great potential to enhance patient care by reducing on-treatment clinical events, adverse drug reactions, and health care-related costs. In fact, integration of such information into the clinical setting may be particularly applicable for antiplatelet and anticoagulation therapeutics, given the increasing body of evidence implicating genetic variation in variable drug response. In this review, we summarize currently available pharmacogenetic information for the most commonly used antiplatelet (ie, clopidogrel and aspirin) and anticoagulation (ie, warfarin) medications. Furthermore, we highlight the currently known role of genetic variability in response to next-generation antiplatelet (prasugrel and ticagrelor) and anticoagulant (dabigatran) agents. While compelling evidence suggests that genetic variants are important determinants of antiplatelet and anticoagulation therapy response, significant barriers to clinical implementation of pharmacogenetic testing exist and are described herein. In addition, we briefly discuss development of new diagnostic targets and therapeutic strategies as well as implications for enhanced patient care. In conclusion, pharmacogenetic testing can provide important information to assist clinicians with prescribing the most personalized and effective antiplatelet and anticoagulation therapy. However, several factors may limit its usefulness and should be considered.
Beitelshees, AL; Voora, D; Lewis, JP
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