Phase 1 study of ixazomib, an investigational proteasome inhibitor, in advanced non-hematologic malignancies.
PURPOSE: Ixazomib is an investigational proteasome inhibitor with demonstrated antitumor activity in xenograft models of multiple myeloma (MM), lymphoma, and solid tumors. This open-label, phase 1 study investigated intravenous (IV) ixazomib, in adult patients with advanced non-hematologic malignancies. METHODS: Patients received IV ixazomib twice-weekly for up to twelve 21-day cycles. The 0.125 mg/m(2) starting dose was doubled (one patient/dose) until 1.0 mg/m(2) based on dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) in cycle 1. This was followed by 3 + 3 dose-escalation and expansion at the maximum tolerated dose (MTD). Primary objectives included safety and MTD assessment. Secondary objectives included assessment of pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and disease response. RESULTS: Ixazomib was escalated from 0.125 to 2.34 mg/m(2) to determine the MTD (n = 23); patients were then enrolled to MTD expansion (n = 73) and pharmacodynamic (n = 20) cohorts. Five patients experienced DLTs (1.0 and 1.76 mg/m(2): grade 3 pruritic rash; 2.34 mg/m(2): grade 3 and 4 thrombocytopenia, and grade 3 acute renal failure); thus, the MTD was 1.76 mg/m(2). Drug-related grade ≥3 adverse events (AEs) included thrombocytopenia (23 %), skin and subcutaneous (SC) tissue disorders (16 %), and fatigue (9 %). Among 92 evaluable patients, one (head and neck cancer) had a partial response and 30 had stable disease. Ixazomib terminal half-life was 3.8-7.2 days; plasma exposures increased dose-proportionally and drug was distributed to tumors. Inhibition of whole-blood 20S proteasome activity and upregulation of ATF-3 in tumor biopsies demonstrated target engagement. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with solid tumors, ixazomib was associated with a manageable safety profile, limited antitumor activity, and evidence of downstream proteasome inhibition effects.
Smith, DC; Kalebic, T; Infante, JR; Siu, LL; Sullivan, D; Vlahovic, G; Kauh, JS; Gao, F; Berger, AJ; Tirrell, S; Gupta, N; Di Bacco, A; Berg, D; Liu, G; Lin, J; Hui, A-M; Thompson, JA
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