TMEM231, mutated in orofaciodigital and Meckel syndromes, organizes the ciliary transition zone.
The Meckel syndrome (MKS) complex functions at the transition zone, located between the basal body and axoneme, to regulate the localization of ciliary membrane proteins. We investigated the role of Tmem231, a two-pass transmembrane protein, in MKS complex formation and function. Consistent with a role in transition zone function, mutation of mouse Tmem231 disrupts the localization of proteins including Arl13b and Inpp5e to cilia, resulting in phenotypes characteristic of MKS such as polydactyly and kidney cysts. Tmem231 and B9d1 are essential for each other and other complex components such as Mks1 to localize to the transition zone. As in mouse, the Caenorhabditis elegans orthologue of Tmem231 localizes to and controls transition zone formation and function, suggesting an evolutionarily conserved role for Tmem231. We identified TMEM231 mutations in orofaciodigital syndrome type 3 (OFD3) and MKS patients that compromise transition zone function. Thus, Tmem231 is critical for organizing the MKS complex and controlling ciliary composition, defects in which cause OFD3 and MKS.
Roberson, EC; Dowdle, WE; Ozanturk, A; Garcia-Gonzalo, FR; Li, C; Halbritter, J; Elkhartoufi, N; Porath, JD; Cope, H; Ashley-Koch, A; Gregory, S; Thomas, S; Sayer, JA; Saunier, S; Otto, EA; Katsanis, N; Davis, EE; Attié-Bitach, T; Hildebrandt, F; Leroux, MR; Reiter, JF
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