The evolutionary design of condensers

Journal Article (Journal Article)

Condensers are flow architectures needed to provide high rates of condensation (or cooling) per unit volume, in enclosures with fixed volume. Their design has not changed from configurations consisting of the banks of horizontal tubes. In this paper, we outline a free path to evolving the design by exploring new features of flow configuration: flattened tubes, multiple tube sizes, arrays of flattened tubes, vertical tubes with turbulent film flow, forced convection condensation instead of gravity driven condensation, and the optimal length of a horizontal tube, i.e., the number of tubes in a column aligned with vapor cross flow. We show that the condensation density can be increased sizably by varying freely and without bias the morphology of the flow system: the shapes and arrangement of the cooled surfaces on which condensation occurs. The evolution of technology is described in terms of the special time direction of the useful (purposeful) changes in the configuration (shapes, arrangements) of surfaces on which flow/condensation occurs. This explains what "evolution" means. It is an important step for physics, not just technology.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Bejan, A; Lee, J; Lorente, S; Kim, Y

Published Date

  • March 28, 2015

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 117 / 12

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1089-7550

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 0021-8979

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1063/1.4915505

Citation Source

  • Scopus