Use of behavior change techniques in clean cooking interventions: a review of the evidence and scorecard of effectiveness.
Despite decades of effort, around 2.8 billion people still rely on solid fuels to meet domestic energy needs. There is robust evidence this causes premature death and chronic disease, as well as wider economic, social, and environmental problems. Behavior change interventions are effective to reduce exposure to harm such as household air pollution, including those using health communications approaches. This article reports the findings of a project that reviewed the effectiveness of behavior change approaches in cleaner cooking interventions in resource-poor settings. The authors synthesized evidence of the use of behavior change techniques, along the cleaner cooking value chain, to bring positive health, economic, and environmental impacts. Forty-eight articles met the inclusion criteria, which documented 55 interventions carried out in 20 countries. The groupings of behavior change techniques most frequently used were shaping knowledge (n = 47), rewards and threats (n = 35), social support (n = 35), and comparisons (n = 16). A scorecard of behavior change effectiveness was developed to analyze a selection of case study interventions. Behavior change techniques have been used effectively as part of multilevel programs. Cooking demonstrations, the right product, and understanding of the barriers and benefits along the value chain have all played a role. Often absent are theories and models of behavior change adapted to the target audience and local context. Robust research methods are needed to track and evaluate behavior change and impact, not just technology disseminated. Behavior change approaches could then play a more prominent role as the "special sauce" in cleaner cooking interventions in resource poor settings.
Goodwin, NJ; O'Farrell, SE; Jagoe, K; Rouse, J; Roma, E; Biran, A; Finkelstein, EA
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