Montreal Cognitive Assessment for screening mild cognitive impairment: variations in test performance and scores by education in Singapore.
BACKGROUND: The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) was developed as a screening instrument for mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We evaluated the MoCA's test performance by educational groups among older Singaporean Chinese adults. METHOD: The MoCA and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) were evaluated in two independent studies (clinic-based sample and community-based sample) of MCI and normal cognition (NC) controls, using receiver operating characteristic curve analyses: area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity (Sn), and specificity (Sp). RESULTS: The MoCA modestly discriminated MCI from NC in both study samples (AUC = 0.63 and 0.65): Sn = 0.64 and Sp = 0.36 at a cut-off of 28/29 in the clinic-based sample, and Sn = 0.65 and Sp = 0.55 at a cut-off of 22/23 in the community-based sample. The MoCA's test performance was least satisfactory in the highest (>6 years) education group: AUC = 0.50 (p = 0.98), Sn = 0.54, and Sp = 0.51 at a cut-off of 27/28. Overall, the MoCA's test performance was not better than that of the MMSE. In multivariate analyses controlling for age and gender, MCI diagnosis was associated with a <1-point decrement in MoCA score (η(2) = 0.010), but lower (1-6 years) and no education was associated with a 3- to 5-point decrement (η(2) = 0.115 and η(2) = 0.162, respectively). CONCLUSION: The MoCA's ability to discriminate MCI from NC was modest in this Chinese population, because it was far more sensitive to the effect of education than MCI diagnosis.
Ng, TP; Feng, L; Lim, WS; Chong, MS; Lee, TS; Yap, KB; Tsoi, T; Liew, TM; Gao, Q; Collinson, S; Kandiah, N; Yap, P
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