A computational study of functional endoscopic sinus surgery and maxillary sinus drug delivery.
BACKGROUND: Topical medication is increasingly used following functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS). Information on particle sizes that maximise maxillary sinus (MS) delivery is conflicting, and the effect of antrostomy size on delivery is unclear. The purpose of this study was to estimate antrostomy and particle size effects on topical MS drug delivery. METHODOLOGY: Sinonasal reconstructions were created from a pre- and a post-FESS CT scan in each of four chronic rhinosinusitis patients. Additional models were created from each post-FESS reconstruction representing four alternative antrostomy sizes. Airflow and particle deposition were simulated in each reconstruction using computational fluid dynamics for nebulised and sprayed delivery. RESULTS: MS ventilation and drug delivery increased following FESS, the largest virtual antrostomy led to greatest delivery, and MS delivery was sensitive to particle size. Particles within a 5-18 μm and 5-20 μm size range led to peak MS deposition for nebulised and sprayed particles, respectively. Post-FESS increases in drug delivery varied across individuals and within individuals by the type of antrostomy created. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that FESS, particularly with larger antrostomies, improves topical drug delivery, and that certain particle sizes improve this delivery. Further research is needed to contextualise these findings with other post-surgical effects.
Wofford, MR; Kimbell, JS; Frank-Ito, DO; Dhandha, V; McKinney, KA; Fleischman, GM; Ebert, CS; Zanation, AM; Senior, BA
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