Single-breath clinical imaging of hyperpolarized (129)Xe in the airspaces, barrier, and red blood cells using an interleaved 3D radial 1-point Dixon acquisition.
PURPOSE: We sought to develop and test a clinically feasible 1-point Dixon, three-dimensional (3D) radial acquisition strategy to create isotropic 3D MR images of (129)Xe in the airspaces, barrier, and red blood cells (RBCs) in a single breath. The approach was evaluated in healthy volunteers and subjects with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). METHODS: A calibration scan determined the echo time at which (129)Xe in RBCs and barrier were 90° out of phase. At this TE, interleaved dissolved and gas-phase images were acquired using a 3D radial acquisition and were reconstructed separately using the NUFFT algorithm. The dissolved-phase image was phase-shifted to cast RBC and barrier signal into the real and imaginary channels such that the image-derived RBC:barrier ratio matched that from spectroscopy. The RBC and barrier images were further corrected for regional field inhomogeneity using a phase map created from the gas-phase (129)Xe image. RESULTS: Healthy volunteers exhibited largely uniform (129)Xe-barrier and (129)Xe-RBC images. By contrast, (129)Xe-RBC images in IPF subjects exhibited significant signal voids. These voids correlated qualitatively with regions of fibrosis visible on CT. CONCLUSIONS: This study illustrates the feasibility of acquiring single-breath, 3D isotropic images of (129)Xe in the airspaces, barrier, and RBCs using a 1-point Dixon 3D radial acquisition.
Kaushik, SS; Robertson, SH; Freeman, MS; He, M; Kelly, KT; Roos, JE; Rackley, CR; Foster, WM; McAdams, HP; Driehuys, B
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