Persisting effects of a PBDE metabolite, 6-OH-BDE-47, on larval and juvenile zebrafish swimming behavior.
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are persistent organic pollutants that are widely detected in the environment, biota, and humans. In mammals, PBDEs can be oxidatively metabolized to form hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-BDEs). While studies have examined behavioral deficits or alterations induced by exposure to PBDEs in both rodents and fish, no study to date has explored behavioral effects from exposure to OH-BDEs, which have been shown to have greater endocrine disrupting potential compared to PBDEs. In the present study, zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed during embryonic and larval development (0-6 days post fertilization, dpf) to a PBDE metabolite, 6-hydroxy, 2,2',4,4' tetrabromodiphenyl ether (10-50 nM) and then examined for short and long-term behavioral effects. Exposed zebrafish tested as larvae (6 dpf) showed an altered swimming response to light-dark transitions, exhibiting hypoactivity in light periods compared to control fish. When fish exposed from 0-6 dpf were tested as juveniles (45 dpf), they showed an increased fear response and hyperactivity in response to tests of novel environment exploration and habituation learning. These results demonstrate that early life exposure to a PBDE metabolite can have immediate or later life (more than a month after exposure) effects on activity levels, habituation, and fear/anxiety.
Macaulay, LJ; Bailey, JM; Levin, ED; Stapleton, HM
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