Regulation of 12-lipoxygenase by cytokines in vascular smooth muscle cells.
Increasing evidence suggests that cytokines such as interleukin-1beta (IL-1), IL-4, and IL-8 may play an important role in the chronic inflammation and cellular growth observed in cardiovascular diseases. The lipoxygenase (LO) pathway of arachidonate metabolism has also been related to the pathology of hypertension and atherosclerosis. LO products have chemotactic, hypertrophic, and mitogenic effects in vascular cells, and the LO enzyme has been implicated in the oxidation of LDL. Furthermore, earlier studies have shown that vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) growth factors such as angiotensin II and platelet-derived growth factor can increase LO activity and expression in VSMCs. In the present study, we have examined whether vasoactive and inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1, IL-4, and IL-8 can modulate 12-LO activity and expression in porcine VSMCs and also whether they have growth-promoting effects in these cells. Treatment of porcine VSMCs with these cytokines led to significant increases in the levels of a cell-associated 12-LO product, 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, as well as intracellular 12-LO enzyme activity. Furthermore, each of these cytokines led to a dose-dependent increase in 12-LO mRNA expression (333-base pair PCR product) as well as 12-LO protein expression (72 kD). In addition, all three interleukins could induce significant increases in VSMC DNA synthesis as well as proliferation. These results suggest that these cytokines have mitogenic effects in VSMCs and are also potent positive regulators of the 12-LO pathway. Thus, enhanced 12-LO activity and expression may be a key mechanism for cytokine-induced VSMC migration and proliferation.
Natarajan, R; Rosdahl, J; Gonzales, N; Bai, W
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