Serum leptin and age-related macular degeneration.
PURPOSE: Leptin, a 167-amino acid protein secreted by adipocytes, has been shown to reduce beta-amyloid deposition and intracellular lipid concentration in animal models, two key pathogenic mechanisms underlying aging. We examined the association between serum leptin levels and AMD. METHODS: We conducted a population-based case-control study including Chinese and Indian adults aged 40 to 80 years who participated in the Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases Study (2007-2011). Age-related macular degeneration was assessed from retinal photographs graded using a modified Wisconsin Age-Related Maculopathy Grading System (n = 426; early = 389, late = 37). Controls (n = 927) without AMD were frequency matched for age, sex, and ethnicity. Serum leptin levels were measured using direct sandwich ELISA. RESULTS: Participants with AMD had lower levels of leptin compared with those without (mean [SD] = 10.0 [11.5] ng/mL versus 12.9 [16.4] ng/mL; P = 0.001). Mean levels of leptin among those with late, early, and without AMD were 8.8, 10.1, and 12.9 ng/mL (P trend = 0.005). In multivariable models adjusting for potential confounders, including smoking, body mass index, blood pressure, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, increasing quartiles of leptin were associated with lower odds of AMD, odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of AMD was 0.56 (0.34-0.92) comparing highest to lowest quartile of serum leptin. In subgroup analyses, the inverse association between leptin and AMD was significant in women, Indian ethnicity, and ex-smokers. CONCLUSIONS: Higher serum leptin levels were inversely associated with AMD. These findings, if confirmed in prospective studies, may provide insights into new pathogenic pathways and possibly therapeutic targets in AMD.
Seshasai, S; Liao, J; Toh, QC; Cheng, C-Y; Cheung, GCM; Sethi, S; Wong, TY; Sabanayagam, C
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