Effect of microstructure on the fatigue of hot-rolled and cold-drawn NiTi shape memory alloys
We present results from a systematic study linking material microstructure to monotonic and fatigue properties of NiTi shape memory alloys. We consider Ni-rich materials that are either (1) hot rolled or (2) hot rolled and cold drawn. In addition to the two material processing routes, heat treatments are used to systematically alter material microstructure giving rise to a broad range of thermal, monotonic and cyclic properties. The strength and hardness of the austenite and martensite phases initially increase with mild heat treatment (300 °C), and subsequently decrease with increased aging temperature above 300 °C. This trend is consistent with transmission electron microscopy observed precipitation hardening in the hot-rolled material and precipitation hardening plus recovery and recrystallization in the cold-drawn materials. The low-cycle pseudoelastic fatigue properties of the NiTi materials generally improve with increasing material strength, although comparison across the two product forms demonstrates that higher measured flow strength does not assure superior resistance to pseudoelastic cyclic degradation. Fatigue crack growth rates in the hot-rolled material are relatively independent of heat treatment and demonstrate similar fatigue crack growth rates to other NiTi product forms; however, the cold-drawn material demonstrates fatigue threshold values some 5 times smaller than the hot-rolled material. The difference in the fatigue performance of hot-rolled and cold-drawn NiTi bars is attributed to significant residual stresses in the cold-drawn material, which amplify fatigue susceptibility despite superior measured monotonic properties. © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Gall, K; Tyber, J; Wilkesanders, G; Robertson, SW; Ritchie, RO; Maier, HJ
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