Early Postoperative Complications following Gracilis Free Muscle Transfer for Facial Reanimation: A Systematic Review and Pooled Data Analysis.

Journal Article (Journal Article;Review;Systematic Review)

BACKGROUND: Multiple studies have detailed promising smile restoration following gracilis free muscle transfer for facial reanimation but information detailing the potential complications is lacking. The aim of this study is to systematically review the literature to evaluate the reported complication rate associated with this procedure. We also aim to determine the most common occurring complications. METHODS: The PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science databases were queried with multiple search strategies for published articles between January 1950 and February 2013 that detailed gracilis free muscle transfer for facial reanimation. Title, abstract, and full text review was performed. Complications were defined as any reported, identifiable adverse outcome that required an alteration in treatment for correction. RESULTS: The literature search yielded 62 studies of gracilis free muscle transfer for facial reanimation. Overall, 36 articles (58%) reported whether or not a complication had occurred. The overall complication rate based on pooled proportions was 9.6% and the most commonly occurring complications were postoperative hematoma (3.6%) and infection (3.5%). CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggests that complications after gracilis free muscle transfer for facial reanimation may be underreported and this complex procedure may in fact be associated with significant adverse outcomes as high as 9.6%.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Garcia, RM; Gosain, AK; Zenn, MR; Marcus, JR

Published Date

  • October 2015

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 31 / 8

Start / End Page

  • 558 - 564

PubMed ID

  • 26220430

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1098-8947

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1055/s-0035-1555139


  • eng

Conference Location

  • United States