Progress toward curing HIV infection with hematopoietic cell transplantation.
HIV-1 infection afflicts more than 35 million people worldwide, according to 2014 estimates from the World Health Organization. For those individuals who have access to antiretroviral therapy, these drugs can effectively suppress, but not cure, HIV-1 infection. Indeed, the only documented case for an HIV/AIDS cure was a patient with HIV-1 and acute myeloid leukemia who received allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) from a graft that carried the HIV-resistant CCR5-∆32/∆32 mutation. Other attempts to establish a cure for HIV/AIDS using HCT in patients with HIV-1 and malignancy have yielded mixed results, as encouraging evidence for virus eradication in a few cases has been offset by poor clinical outcomes due to the underlying cancer or other complications. Such clinical strategies have relied on HIV-resistant hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells that harbor the natural CCR5-∆32/∆32 mutation or that have been genetically modified for HIV-resistance. Nevertheless, HCT with HIV-resistant cord blood remains a promising option, particularly with inventories of CCR5-∆32/∆32 units or with genetically modified, human leukocyte antigen-matched cord blood.
Petz, LD; Burnett, JC; Li, H; Li, S; Tonai, R; Bakalinskaya, M; Shpall, EJ; Armitage, S; Kurtzberg, J; Regan, DM; Clark, P; Querol, S; Gutman, JA; Spellman, SR; Gragert, L; Rossi, JJ
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