Allovalency revisited: an analysis of multisite phosphorylation and substrate rebinding.
The utilization of multiple phosphorylation sites in regulating a biological response is ubiquitous in cell signaling. If each site contributes an additional, equivalent binding site, then one consequence of an increase in the number of phosphorylations may be to increase the probability that, upon dissociation, a ligand immediately rebinds to its receptor. How such effects may influence cell signaling systems is not well understood. Here, a self-consistent integral equation formalism for ligand rebinding, in conjunction with Monte Carlo simulations, is employed to further investigate the effects of multiple, equivalent binding sites on shaping biological responses. Multiple regimes that characterize qualitatively different physics due to the differential prevalence of rebinding effects are predicted. Calculations suggest that when ligand rebinding contributes significantly to the dose response, a purely allovalent model can influence the binding curves nonlinearly. The model also predicts that ligand rebinding in itself appears insufficient to generate a highly cooperative biological response.
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