Heterogeneity of glycolysis in cancers and therapeutic opportunities.
Upregulated glycolysis, both in normoxic and hypoxic environments, is a nearly universal trait of cancer cells. The enormous difference in glucose metabolism offers a target for therapeutic intervention with a potentially low toxicity profile. The past decade has seen a steep rise in the development and clinical assessment of small molecules that target glycolysis. The enzymes in glycolysis have a highly heterogeneous nature that allows for the different bioenergetic, biosynthetic, and signaling demands needed for various tissue functions. In cancers, these properties enable them to respond to the variable requirements of cell survival, proliferation and adaptation to nutrient availability. Heterogeneity in glycolysis occurs through the expression of different isoforms, posttranslational modifications that affect the kinetic and regulatory properties of the enzyme. In this review, we will explore this vast heterogeneity of glycolysis and discuss how this information might be exploited to better target glucose metabolism and offer possibilities for biomarker development.
Warmoes, MO; Locasale, JW
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