Evidence for fumonisin inhibition of ceramide synthase in humans consuming maize-based foods and living in high exposure communities in Guatemala.
SCOPE: Fumonisin (FB) occurs in maize and is an inhibitor of ceramide synthase (CerS). We determined the urinary FB1 (UFB1 ) and sphingoid base 1-phosphate levels in blood from women consuming maize in high and low FB exposure communities in Guatemala. METHODS AND RESULTS: FB1 intake was estimated using the UFB1 . Sphinganine 1-phosphate (Sa 1-P), sphingosine 1-phosphate (So 1-P), and the Sa 1-P/So 1-P ratio were determined in blood spots collected on absorbent paper at the same time as urine collection. In the first study, blood spots and urine were collected every 3 months (March 2011 to February 2012) from women living in low (Chimaltenango and Escuintla) and high (Jutiapa) FB exposure communities (1240 total recruits). The UFB1 , Sa 1-P/So 1-P ratio, and Sa 1-P/mL in blood spots were significantly higher in the high FB1 intake community compared to the low FB1 intake communities. The results were confirmed in a follow-up study (February 2013) involving 299 women living in low (Sacatepéquez) and high (Santa Rosa and Chiquimula) FB exposure communities. CONCLUSIONS: High levels of FB1 intake are correlated with changes in Sa 1-P and the Sa 1-P/So 1-P ratio in human blood in a manner consistent with FB1 inhibition of CerS.
Riley, RT; Torres, O; Matute, J; Gregory, SG; Ashley-Koch, AE; Showker, JL; Mitchell, T; Voss, KA; Maddox, JR; Gelineau-van Waes, JB
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