Anatomic and visual function outcomes in paediatric idiopathic intracranial hypertension.
BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of literature describing risk factors for vision loss in paediatric idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH). We investigate the final visual function, spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and enhanced depth imaging (EDI)-OCT findings in children with papilledema caused by IIH. METHODS: Medical records of 31 patients with paediatric IIH (age ≤17 years) were retrospectively reviewed. Optic disc photographs on presentation and automated perimetry, SD-OCT and EDI-OCT imaging on final follow-up visit were statistically analysed to identify patient characteristics and anatomic findings associated with irreversible vision loss. RESULTS: Permanent visual acuity or visual field loss developed in 19% of study eyes. Papilledema of modified Frisén grade ≥3 on presentation was highly predictive of permanent vision loss (p<0.001), while associations between pubertal status and visual function outcome failed to reach statistical significance. SD-OCT revealed optic atrophy in 13% and photoreceptor loss in 19% of eyes, with both findings highly associated with vision loss (p<0.0001). Optic disc drusen was noted in 48% of study eyes by EDI-OCT but was not found to be predictive of visual outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical observation of high papilledema grade on presentation is predictive of poor visual outcomes. Vision loss is associated not only with optic atrophy but also with photoreceptor damage. Interestingly, a high proportion of study eyes had optic disc drusen, which was not associated with vision loss, but can be a diagnostic challenge in distinguishing true papilledema from pseudopapilledema.
Gospe, SM; Bhatti, MT; El-Dairi, MA
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