ACR Appropriateness Criteria Vomiting in Infants up to 3 Months of Age.
Vomiting is a commonly reported symptom in infants less than three months of age. There are a multitude of pathologies to consider, both within and outside the gastrointestinal tract. In addition to conducting a thorough history and physical examination, a clinician formulates a reasonable differential diagnosis by consideration of two main factors: the infant's age and the characterization of the vomit as bilious or nonbilious. In this endeavor, the clinician is able to determine if an imaging study is needed and, if so, the urgency of the request. A review of the appropriate imaging evaluation of vomiting infants in the newborn to three-month-old age group is provided by organizing the discussion around the following three clinical scenarios: bilious vomiting, intermittent nonbilious vomiting since birth, and new-onset bilious vomiting. The ACR Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every three years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances in which evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment.
Raske, ME; Dempsey, ME; Dillman, JR; Dory, CE; Garber, M; Hayes, LL; Iyer, RS; Kulkarni, AV; Myseros, JS; Rice, HE; Rigsby, CK; Ryan, ME; Strouse, PJ; Westra, SJ; Wootton-Gorges, SL; Coley, BD; Karmazyn, B
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