Nomenclature updates resulting from the evolution of avian influenza A(H5) virus clades, 2.2.1, and 2.3.4 during 2013-2014.


Journal Article

The A/goose/Guangdong/1/96-like hemagglutinin (HA) genes of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5) viruses have continued to rapidly evolve since the most recent update to the H5 clade nomenclature by the WHO/OIE/FAO H5N1 Evolution Working Group. New clades diverging beyond established boundaries need to be identified and designated accordingly.Hemagglutinin sequences deposited in publicly accessible databases up to December 31, 2014, were analyzed by phylogenetic and average pairwise distance methods to identify new clades that merit nomenclature changes.Three new clade designations were recommended based on division of clade 2·1·3·2a (Indonesia), 2·2·1 (Egypt), and 2·3·4 (widespread detection in Asia, Europe, and North America) that includes newly emergent HPAI virus subtypes H5N2, H5N3, H5N5, H5N6, and H5N8.Continued global surveillance for HPAI A(H5) viruses in all host species and timely reporting of sequence data will be critical to quickly identify new clades and assess their potential impact on human and animal health.

Full Text

Cited Authors

  • Smith, GJD; Donis, RO; World Health Organization/World Organisation for Animal Health/Food and Agriculture Organization (WHO/OIE/FAO) H5 Evolution Working Group,

Published Date

  • September 2015

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 9 / 5

Start / End Page

  • 271 - 276

PubMed ID

  • 25966311

Pubmed Central ID

  • 25966311

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1750-2659

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 1750-2640

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1111/irv.12324


  • eng