Effect of Prior Anti-VEGF Injections on the Risk of Retained Lens Fragments and Endophthalmitis after Cataract Surgery in the Elderly.
PURPOSE:To investigate the effect of prior intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) injections on surgical and postoperative complication rates associated with cataract surgery in a nationally representative longitudinal sample of elderly persons. DESIGN:Retrospective, longitudinal cohort analysis. PARTICIPANTS:A total of 203 643 Medicare beneficiaries who underwent cataract surgery from January 1, 2009, to December 31, 2013. METHODS:By using the 5% sample of Medicare claims data, the study assessed risks of 3 adverse outcomes after receipt of cataract surgery for beneficiaries with a history of intravitreal injections. Risks of these outcomes in beneficiaries with a history of intravitreal injections relative to those without were calculated using the Cox proportional hazard model. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:The primary outcome was the risk of subsequent removal of retained lens fragments (RLFs) within 28 days after cataract surgery. Secondary outcomes were a new diagnosis of acute (<40 days) or delayed-onset (40+ days) endophthalmitis and risk of a new primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) diagnosis within 365 days after cataract surgery. RESULTS:Prior intravitreal anti-VEGF injections were associated with a significantly increased risk of subsequent RLF removal within 28 days after cataract surgery (hazard ratio [HR], 2.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.19-4.30). Prior injections were also associated with increased risk of both acute (HR, 2.29; 95% CI, 1.001-5.22) and delayed-onset endophthalmitis (HR, 3.65; 95% CI, 1.65-8.05). Prior injections were not a significant indicator of increased risk of a new POAG diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS:A history of intravitreal injections may be a risk factor for cataract surgery-related intraoperative complications and endophthalmitis. Given the frequency of intravitreal injections and cataract surgery, increased preoperative assessment, additional intraoperative caution, and postoperative vigilance are recommended in patients with a history of intravitreal injections undergoing cataract extraction.
Hahn, P; Yashkin, AP; Sloan, FA
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