Coupling boreal forest CO<inf>2</inf>, H<inf>2</inf>O and energy flows by a vertically structured forest canopy - Soil model with separate bryophyte layer
© 2015 Elsevier B.V. A 1-dimensional multi-layer, multi-species soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer model APES (Atmosphere-Plant Exchange Simulator) with a separate moss layer at the forest floor was developed and evaluated for a boreal Scots pine forest situated in Hyytiälä, Southern Finland. The APES is based on biophysical principles for up-scaling CO2, H2O, heat and momentum exchange from canopy element level to a stand scale. The functional descriptions of sub-models were parametrized by literature values, previous model approaches and leaf and moss gas exchange measurements, and stand structural characteristics derived from multi-scale measurements. The model was independently tested against eddy-covariance fluxes of CO2, H2O and sensible heat measured above and within the canopy, and against soil heat flux and temperature and moisture profiles. The model was shown to well reproduce fluxes and resulting scalar gradients at diurnal and seasonal timescales. Also predictions for moss moisture content and soil moisture and temperature dynamics were acceptable considering the heterogeneity in soil hydraulic and thermal properties and uncertainties in boundary conditions.The model framework allows for (1) coupling above-ground with the soil domains through the feedbacks between soil water and vegetation mediated by the moss layer, (2) several vascular plant species or cohorts in a multi-species canopy, and (3) explicit treatment of bryophyte layer energy and water balance and bottom layer - atmosphere exchange. These features make APES well-suited for exploring feedbacks between boreal forest structure, site conditions and vegetation processes controlling ecosystem-atmosphere exchange.
Launiainen, S; Katul, GG; Lauren, A; Kolari, P
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