Polyfunctional T-Cell Signatures to Predict Protection from Cytomegalovirus after Lung Transplantation.
Cytomegalovirus (CMV), which is one of the most common infections after lung transplantation, is associated with chronic lung allograft dysfunction and worse post-transplantation survival. Current approaches for at-risk patients include a fixed duration of antiviral prophylaxis despite the associated cost and side effects.We sought to identify a specific immunologic signature that predicted protection from subsequent CMV.CMV-seropositive lung transplantation recipients were included in the discovery (n = 43) and validation (n = 28) cohorts. Polyfunctional CMV-specific immunity was assessed by stimulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells with CMV pp65 or IE-1 peptide pools and then by measuring T-cell expression of CD107a, IFN-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and IL-2. Recipients were prospectively monitored for subsequent viremia. A Cox proportional hazards regression model that considered cytokine responses individually and in combination was used to create a predictive model for protection from CMV reactivation. This model was then applied to the validation cohort.Using the discovery cohort, we identified a specific combination of polyfunctional T-cell subsets to pp65 that predicted protection from subsequent CMV viremia (concordance index 0.88 [SE, 0.087]). The model included both protective (CD107a(-)/IFN-γ(+)/IL-2(+)/TNF-α(+) CD4(+) T cells, CD107a(-)/IFN-γ(+)/IL-2(+)/TNF-α(+) CD8(+) T cells) and detrimental (CD107a(+)/IFN-γ(+)/IL-2(-)/TNF-α(-) CD8(+) T cells) subsets. The model was robust in the validation cohort (concordance index 0.81 [SE, 0.103]).We identified and validated a specific T-cell polyfunctional response to CMV antigen stimulation that provides a clinically useful prediction of subsequent cytomegalovirus risk. This novel diagnostic approach could inform the optimal duration of individual prophylaxis.
Snyder, LD; Chan, C; Kwon, D; Yi, JS; Martissa, JA; Copeland, CAF; Osborne, RJ; Sparks, SD; Palmer, SM; Weinhold, KJ
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