Molecular determinants in the second intracellular loop of the 5-hydroxytryptamine-1A receptor for G-protein coupling.
This study provides the first comprehensive evidence that the second intracellular loop C-terminal domain (Ci2) is critical for receptor-G protein coupling to multiple responses. Although Ci2 is weakly conserved, its role in 5-hydroxytryptamine-1A (5-HT1A) receptor function was suggested by the selective loss of Gbetagamma-mediated signaling in the T149A-5-HT1A receptor mutant. More than 60 point mutant 5-HT1A receptors in the alpha-helical Ci2 sequence (143DYVNKRTPRR152) were generated. Most mutants retained agonist binding and were tested for Gbetagamma signaling to adenylyl cyclase II or phospholipase C and Galphai coupling to detect constitutive and agonist-induced Gi/Go coupling. Remarkably, most point mutations markedly attenuated 5-HT1A signaling, indicating that the entire Ci2 domain is critical for receptor G-protein coupling. Six signaling phenotypes were observed: wild-type-like, Galphai-coupled/weak Gbetagamma-coupled, Gbetagamma-uncoupled, Gbetagamma-selective coupled, uncoupled, and inverse coupling. Our data elucidate specific roles of Ci2 residues consistent with predictions based on rhodopsin crystal structure. The absolute coupling requirement for lysine, arginine, and proline residues is consistent with a predicted amphipathic alpha-helical Ci2 domain that is kinked at Pro150. Polar residues (Thr149, Asn146) located in the externally oriented positively charged face were required for Gbetagamma but not Galphai coupling, suggesting a direct interface with Gbetagamma subunits. The hydrophobic face includes the critical Tyr144 that directs the specificity of coupling to both Gbetagamma and Galphai pathways. The key coupling residues Tyr144/Lys147 (Ci2) are predicted to orient internally, forming hydrogen and ionic bonds with Asp133/Arg134 (Ni2 DRY motif) and Glu340 (Ci3) to stabilize the Gprotein coupling domain. Thus, the 5-HT1A receptor Ci2 domain determines Gbetagamma specificity and stabilizes Galphai-mediated signaling.
Kushwaha, N; Harwood, SC; Wilson, AM; Berger, M; Tecott, LH; Roth, BL; Albert, PR
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