Transglutaminase 2 protects against ischemic stroke.
Transglutaminase 2 (TG2) is a multifunctional protein that modulates cell survival and death pathways. It is upregulated in numerous ischemic models, and protects primary neurons from oxygen and glucose deprivation. TG2 binds to the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) 1beta and decreases the upregulation of hypoxic-induced proapoptotic genes. To investigate the role of TG2 in ischemic stroke in vivo, we used the murine, permanent middle cerebral artery (MCA) ligation model. TG2 mRNA levels are increased after MCA ligations, and transgenic mice that express human TG2 in neurons had significantly smaller infarct volumes than wild type littermates. Further, TG2 translocates into the nucleus within 2h post ligation. Nuclear-localized TG2 is also apparent in human stroke cases. TG2 suppressed the upregulation of the HIF-induced, proapoptotic gene, Noxa. The findings of this study indicate that TG2 plays a role in attenuating ischemic-induced cell death possibly by modulating hypoxic-induced transcriptional processes.
Filiano, AJ; Tucholski, J; Dolan, PJ; Colak, G; Johnson, GVW
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