Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP), an Active Ingredient of Chinese Herb Medicine Chuanxiong, Attenuates the Degeneration of Trabecular Meshwork through SDF-1/CXCR4 Axis.
A traditional Chinese medicine, Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP), has been prescribed as a complementary treatment for glaucoma to improve patient prognosis. However, the pharmacological mechanism of action of TMP is poorly understood. In previous studies, we demonstrated that TMP exerts potent inhibitory effects on neovascularization, suppresses the tumorigenic behavior of glioma cells, and protects neural cells by regulating CXCR4 expression. Here, we further investigated whether the SDF-1/CXCR4 pathway is also involved in the TMP-mediated activity in trabecular meshwork cells.CXCR4 expression was examined by quantitative real-time PCR in trabecular and iris specimens from 54 primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) patients who required surgery and 19 non-glaucomatous donors. Our data revealed markedly elevated CXCR4 expression in the trabecular meshwork of POAG patients compared with that of controls. Consistently, CXCR4 expression was much higher in glaucomatous trabecular meshwork cells than in normal trabecular meshwork cells. Using RT-PCR and western blot assays, we determined that glaucoma-related cytokines and dexamethasone (DEX) also significantly up-regulated CXCR4 expression in primary human trabecular meshwork (PHTM) cells. Moreover, the TGF-β1-mediated induction of CXCR4 expression in PHTM cells was markedly down-regulated by TMP compared with control treatment (PBS) and the CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100. In addition, TMP could counteract the TGF-β1-induced effects on stress fiber accumulation and expansion of PHTM cells. TMP markedly suppressed the migration of PHTM cells stimulated by TGF-β1 in transwell and scratch wound assays. TMP also suppressed the extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation induced by TGF-β2.Our findings demonstrate that CXCR4 might be involved in the pathogenetic changes in the trabecular meshwork of patients with POAG. Additionally, TMP might exert its beneficial effects in POAG patients by down-regulating CXCR4 expression.
Yu, N; Zhang, Z; Chen, P; Zhong, Y; Cai, X; Hu, H; Yang, Y; Zhang, J; Li, K; Ge, J; Yu, K; Liu, X; Zhuang, J
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