Effects of Acetaminophen on Oxidant and Irritant Respiratory Tract Responses to Environmental Tobacco Smoke in Female Mice.
BACKGROUND: Although it is known that acetaminophen causes oxidative injury in the liver, it is not known whether it causes oxidative stress in the respiratory tract. If so, this widely used analgesic may potentiate the adverse effects of oxidant air pollutants. OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to determine if acetaminophen induces respiratory tract oxidative stress and/or potentiates the oxidative stress and irritant responses to an inhaled oxidant: environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). METHODS: Acetaminophen [100 mg/kg intraperitoneal (ip)] and/or sidestream tobacco smoke (as a surrogate for ETS, 5 mg/m3 for 10 min) were administered to female C57Bl/6J mice, and airway oxidative stress was assessed by loss of tissue antioxidants [estimated by nonprotein sulfhydryl (NPSH) levels] and/or induction of oxidant stress response genes. In addition, the effects of acetaminophen on airway irritation reflex responses to ETS were examined by plethysmography. RESULTS: Acetaminophen diminished NPSH in nasal, thoracic extrapulmonary, and lung tissues; it also induced the oxidant stress response genes glutamate-cysteine ligase, catalytic subunit, and NAD(P)H dehydrogenase, quinone 1, in these sites. ETS produced a similar response. The response to acetaminophen plus ETS was equal to or greater than the sum of the responses to either agent alone. Although it had no effect by itself, acetaminophen greatly increased the reflex irritant response to ETS. CONCLUSIONS: At supratherapeutic levels, acetaminophen induced oxidative stress throughout the respiratory tract and appeared to potentiate some responses to environmentally relevant ETS exposure in female C57Bl/6J mice. These results highlight the potential for this widely used drug to modulate responsiveness to oxidant air pollutants. CITATION: Smith GJ, Cichocki JA, Doughty BJ, Manautou JE, Jordt SE, Morris JB. 2016. Effects of acetaminophen on oxidant and irritant respiratory tract responses to environmental tobacco smoke in female mice. Environ Health Perspect 124:642-650; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1509851.
Smith, GJ; Cichocki, JA; Doughty, BJ; Manautou, JE; Jordt, S-E; Morris, JB
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