Summertime physical and biological controls on O<inf>2</inf> and CO<inf>2</inf> in the Australian Sector of the Southern Ocean
© 2013 Elsevier B.V..Continuous measurements of CO<inf>2</inf> partial pressure, dissolved oxygen, and the oxygen argon ratio (O<inf>2</inf>/Ar) in surface waters, complemented by discrete observations of inorganic carbon, along a late-summer south-to-north transect in the Australian Sector of the Southern Ocean (115°E, WOCE I9S) are presented. The largest net community production (NCP, based on O<inf>2</inf>/Ar), and air-sea CO<inf>2</inf> disequilibrium (δDpCO<inf>2</inf>) were found in three regions: (1) between the southern boundary of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (63.6°S) and southern extent of the Polar Front (58.6°S, NCP=30mmolCm<sup>-2</sup>d<sup>-1</sup>, δpCO<inf>2</inf>=30 to 50μatm); (2) between the northern extent of the Sub-Antarctic Front (45.5°S) and the Sub-Tropical Front (39.8°S, NCP=50mmolCm<sup>-2</sup>d<sup>-1</sup>, δpCO<inf>2</inf>=25μatm); and (3) near 35°S (NCP=50mmolCm<sup>-2</sup>d<sup>-1</sup>, δpCO<inf>2</inf>=20μatm). Areas of enhanced NCP were correlated with shallow mixed layer depths, suggesting that production is controlled in part by light limitation. We found good agreement between estimates of NCP based on O<inf>2</inf>/Ar measurements and those derived from seasonal (mixed layer) inorganic carbon deficits. In ice covered areas, and in areas where surface temperature changes act on shorter timescales than the equilibration of oxygen in the mixed layer, we find that physical controls on surface O<inf>2</inf> are of equal magnitude to biological controls, which has important implications for the use of oxygen sensors on autonomous platforms to infer NCP.
Shadwick, EH; Tilbrook, B; Cassar, N; Trull, TW; Rintoul, SR
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