Choosing Blackness in Brazil’s Racialized Democracy: The Endogeneity of Race in Salvador and São Paulo


Journal Article

© 2014, © 2014 Taylor & Francis. Racial identity is endogenous and should be considered a dependent variable in many contexts. Relying on quantitative methods, we examine why some Afro-Brazilians in Salvador and São Paulo choose black identities despite prevailing negative stereotypes in Brazilian society. Our first hypothesis, based on a survey conducted in 2008, is that those Afro-Brazilians with darker skin, higher socioeconomic status, greater experiences with discrimination, and who express a sense of black-linked fate are more likely to identify as preto or negro. Relying on a 2006 survey, our second hypothesis is that Afro-Brazilians in São Paulo rather than Salvador with higher socioeconomic status and who express a sense of black-linked fate are more likely to identify as black rather than nonblack. Our study contributes to an understanding of the changing racial dynamics in the United States and calls for greater consideration of racialized experiences and more research focused on collecting data consistently on an individual’s appearance.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Mitchell-Walthour, G; Darity, W

Published Date

  • January 1, 2014

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 9 / 3

Start / End Page

  • 318 - 348

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1744-2230

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 1744-2222

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1080/17442222.2014.959781

Citation Source

  • Scopus