Clinical outcome and predictors of treatment response in foam sodium tetradecyl sulfate sclerotherapy of venous malformations.
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate clinical outcomes and their predictors in patients with venous malformation (VM) treated with foam sodium tetradecyl sulfate (STS) sclerotherapy. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated clinical outcomes of foam STS sclerotherapy in 86 patients with 91 VMs to assess reduction in pain and mass after treatment. Univariate and multivariate analysis was performed to determine possible predictors of clinical outcome with foam STS sclerotherapy. RESULTS: A positive response of 49.5% in pain reduction and 52.7% in mass reduction was observed. The numerical rating scale (NRS) score improved from 4.36 ± 2.64 to 1.74 ± 1.57, and VM mass volume decreased to 41.7 ± 35.52% of the initial size. On multivariate analysis, a high baseline NRS score (odds ratio: 1.12, 95% confidence interval: 1.09-1.15) and VM location in the trunk versus the head and neck (odds ratio: 1.30, 95% confidence interval: 1.00-1.69) were positive predictors of pain improvement. Minor complications occurred in 11 (12.1%) patients and recurrence in 12 (13.2%) patients. CONCLUSIONS: Foam STS sclerotherapy is an effective treatment in venous malformation, with low complication risk. A high baseline NRS score and location in the trunk versus the head and neck were positive predictors in improvement of pain. KEY POINTS: • Foam STS sclerotherapy is effective in VM, with low risk of complications. • Relief of pain tends to be dramatic in patients with severe pain. • Location of VM is a predictor of pain improvement. • The presence of a draining vein does not affect foam sclerotherapy.
Park, HS; Do, YS; Park, KB; Kim, K-H; Woo, SY; Jung, S-H; Kim, D-I; Kim, YW; Hyun, D; Cho, SK; Choo, IW
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