Applicability of laparoscopic approach to the resection of large adrenal tumours: a retrospective cohort study on 200 patients.
BACKGROUND: Controversies exist in the best surgical approach (open vs. laparoscopy) to large adrenal tumours without peri-operative evidence of primary carcinoma, mainly due to possible capsular disruption of an unsuspected malignancy. In addition, intra-operative blood loss, conversion rate, operative time, and hospital stay may be increased with laparoscopy. THE AIMS OF OUR STUDY WERE: (1) to compare clinical outcomes of laparoscopic adrenalectomy for large versus small adrenal tumours and (2) to identify risk factors associated with increased operative time and hospital stay in laparoscopic adrenalectomy. METHODS: This is a multicentre retrospective cohort study in a large patient population (N = 200) who underwent laparoscopic adrenalectomy in 2004-2014 at three Italian academic hospitals. Patients were divided into two cohorts according to tumour size: "large" tumours were defined as ≥5 cm (N = 50) and "small" tumours as <5 cm (N = 150). Further analysis adopting a ≥8 cm (N = 15) cut-off size was performed. RESULTS: The study groups were comparable in age and gender distribution as well as their tumour characteristics. The operative time (p = 0.671), conversion rate (p = 0.488), intra- (p = 0.876) and post-operative (p = 0.639) complications, and hospital stay (p = 0.229) were similar between groups. With a cut-off size ≥5 cm, the early study period (2004-2009), which included operators' learning curve, was associated with increased risk of longer operative time (HR 0.57; 95 % CI 0.40-0.82), while American Society of Anaesthesiology score ≥3 was associated with prolonged hospital stay (HR 0.67; 95 % CI 0.47-0.97). Tumour size ≥8 cm was associated with prolonged operative time (HR 0.47; 95 % CI 0.24-0.94). CONCLUSIONS: Surgeons skilled in advanced laparoscopy and adrenal surgery can perform laparoscopic adrenalectomy safely in patients with ≥5-cm tumours with no increase in hospital stay, or conversion rate, although operative time may be increased for ≥8-cm tumours. Surgeon' experience, size ≥8 cm, and patient comorbidities have the largest impact on operative time and length of hospital stay in laparoscopic large adrenal tumour resection.
Feo, CV; Portinari, M; Maestroni, U; Del Rio, P; Severi, S; Viani, L; Pravisani, R; Soliani, G; Zatelli, MC; Ambrosio, MR; Tong, J; Terrosu, G; Bresadola, V
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