Natural History of Geographic Atrophy Progression Secondary to Age-Related Macular Degeneration (Geographic Atrophy Progression Study).
(Journal Article;Multicenter Study)
PURPOSE: The Geographic Atrophy Progression (GAP) study was designed to assess the rate of geographic atrophy (GA) progression and to identify prognostic factors by measuring the enlargement of the atrophic lesions using fundus autofluorescence (FAF) and color fundus photography (CFP). DESIGN: Prospective, multicenter, noninterventional natural history study. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 603 participants were enrolled in the study; 413 of those had gradable lesion data from FAF or CFP, and 321 had gradable lesion data from both FAF and CFP. METHODS: Atrophic lesion areas were measured by FAF and CFP to assess lesion progression over time. Lesion size assessments and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) were conducted at screening/baseline (day 0) and at 3 follow-up visits: month 6, month 12, and month 18 (or early exit). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The GA lesion progression rate in disease subgroups and mean change from baseline visual acuity. RESULTS: Mean (standard error) lesion size changes from baseline, determined by FAF and CFP, respectively, were 0.88 (0.1) and 0.78 (0.1) mm(2) at 6 months, 1.85 (0.1) and 1.57 (0.1) mm(2) at 12 months, and 3.14 (0.4) and 3.17 (0.5) mm(2) at 18 months. The mean change in lesion size from baseline to month 12 was significantly greater in participants who had eyes with multifocal atrophic spots compared with those with unifocal spots (P < 0.001) and those with extrafoveal lesions compared with those with foveal lesions (P = 0.001). The mean (standard deviation) decrease in visual acuity was 6.2 ± 15.6 letters for patients with image data available. Atrophic lesions with a diffuse (mean 0.95 mm(2)) or banded (mean 1.01 mm(2)) FAF pattern grew more rapidly by month 6 compared with those with the "none" (mean, 0.13 mm(2)) and focal (mean, 0.36 mm(2)) FAF patterns. CONCLUSIONS: Although differences were observed in mean lesion size measurements using FAF imaging compared with CFP, the measurements were highly correlated with one another. Significant differences were found in lesion progression rates in participants stratified by hyperfluorescence pattern subtype. This large GA natural history study provides a strong foundation for future clinical trials.
Schmitz-Valckenberg, S; Sahel, J-A; Danis, R; Fleckenstein, M; Jaffe, GJ; Wolf, S; Pruente, C; Holz, FG
Volume / Issue
Start / End Page
Pubmed Central ID
Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)