Effects of disordered eating and obesity on weight, craving, and food intake during ad libitum smoking and abstinence.
Although there is empirical support for the association between smoking, disordered eating, and subsequent weight gain upon smoking cessation, there have been no prospective studies to track changes in eating patterns during smoking abstinence and explore underlying biobehavioral processes. To help fill these gaps, we recruited four groups of women (N=48, 12/group) based on presence vs. absence of obesity and on low vs. high risk of severe dieting and/or binge-eating to participate in a laboratory study of eating in the context of ad libitum smoking and smoking abstinence. Participants [mean age 31.3 years; Fagerstrom Test of Nicotine Dependence (FTND) 4.3; smoking rate 18.7 cigarettes/day] completed two sessions: one after ad libitum smoking, the other after 2 days' smoking abstinence, in counterbalanced order. After a half-day's restricted eating, participants watched a video, with measured amounts of preselected preferred food available throughout. Cigarettes were available during the ad libitum smoking session. High-risk women weighed more after 2 days' abstinence than during the ad libitum smoking condition, whereas low-risk women did not differ across conditions. Nicotine craving changed significantly more in anticipation of nicotine deprivation for high-BMI women than their low-BMI counterparts. Caloric intake was marginally attenuated during abstinence for low-BMI compared with high-BMI participants (P<.10), an effect primarily accounted for by differences in protein intake (P<.10). These findings suggest that low-BMI women may be less prone to weight gain during early abstinence, possibly because they compensate for metabolic changes induced by nicotine washout by eating less. Craving increases experienced by high-BMI women during abstinence under conditions of food deprivation may contribute to difficulty quitting in these women.
Saules, KK; Pomerleau, CS; Snedecor, SM; Brouwer, RN; Rosenberg, EEM
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