Current management of pediatric thyroid disease and differentiated thyroid cancer.
In this article, we focus on the role of ultrasound and fine needle aspiration, management of benign nodules, extent of thyroid resection, management of regional lymph node disease, and risk stratification in staging for well differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) in children.The recent guidelines by the American Thyroid Association focused specifically on the management of thyroid nodules and DTC in children and adolescents marks a change from previous versions, which extrapolated adult guidelines to the pediatric population. DTC in children has a distinct presentation and clinical behavior compared with adult disease. The overall excellent outcomes for pediatric patients have led to a risk stratification approach in their management (low, intermediate, and high-risk disease groupings), aiming to minimize the potential morbidity of treatment.In this review, we focus on pediatric thyroid disease, including recent studies and debates regarding the management of thyroid nodules and DTC.
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