Content validity of an acupuncture sensation questionnaire.
OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study are to collect acupuncture sensations reflecting real-life patients' experiences using qualitative methods and to test the content validity whether their sensations are proper candidates for de qi. METHODS: The items for the Acupuncture Sensation Questionnaire (ASQ) were developed through in-depth interview, focus group discussion, and expert panel judgment for content validity. Descriptions of sensations were collected and categorized according to the three stages of acupuncture: insertion, manipulation, and retention of the needle. Those expressions chosen after review by a focus group were tested for the content validity by 10 expert panel judges. The content validity index (CVI) on each item was calculated, and the items that showed over 0.8 of CVI, representing 80% of consent by experts, were constituted for the ASQ. RESULTS: Sixty-one (61) in-depth interviews from 48 patients in the acupuncture clinic were analyzed. Thirty-three (33) expressions for the needle insertion, 59 for the manipulation, and 29 for the retention were collected. After the discussion by a focus group, the expressions were consolidated into 57 items (15 for insertion, 26 for manipulation, and 16 for retention) and they were tested for the content validity. In the final version, 19 items (3, 9, and 7, respectively) were listed. The items were found to be reflecting real-life experiences and expanded from the traditional acupuncture sensations. CONCLUSIONS: The newly developed ASQ incorporated real acupuncture experiences and has sufficient content validity for de qi.
Kim, Y; Park, J; Lee, H; Bang, H; Park, H-J
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